(1) Except as provided in subsection (5) of this section, the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle registered or required to be registered for operation on the highway shall not contain or be used with undyed diesel fuel that has not been taxed or diesel fuel which contains any evidence of the dye or chemical marker added pursuant to the regulations promulgated under 26 U.S.C. 4082 or 42 U.S.C. 7545 indicating untaxed low-sulphur or high-sulphur diesel fuel.
(2) No retailer of diesel fuel shall sell or offer to sell diesel fuel that contains any evidence of the dye or chemical marker added pursuant to the regulations promulgated under 26 U.S.C. 4082 or 42 U.S.C. 7545 indicating untaxed low-sulphur or high-sulphur diesel fuel unless the fuel dispensing device is clearly marked with a notice that the fuel is dyed or chemically marked.
(3) Any law enforcement officer, any carrier enforcement officer, or any agent of the department who has reasonable grounds to suspect a violation of this section may inspect the fuel in the fuel supply tank of any motor vehicle or the fuel storage facilities and dispensing devices of any diesel fuel retailer to determine compliance with this section. Fuel inspections may also be conducted in the course of safety or other inspections authorized by law.
(4) Any person who violates any provision of this section or who refuses to permit an inspection authorized by this section shall be guilty of a Class IV misdemeanor and shall be subject to an administrative penalty of two hundred fifty dollars for the first such violation. If the person had another violation under this section within the last five years, the person shall be subject to an administrative penalty of one thousand dollars for the current violation. If the person had two or more violations under this section within the last five years, the person shall be subject to an administrative penalty of two thousand five hundred dollars for the current violation. All such penalties shall be assessed against the owner of the vehicle as of the date of the violation. The penalty shall be assessed and collected by the department. All such penalties collected shall be remitted to the State Treasurer for credit to the Highway Trust Fund.
(5) Any motor vehicle owned or leased by any state, county, municipality, or other political subdivision may be operated on the highways of this state with dyed diesel fuel, except high-sulphur diesel fuel dyed in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 7545, if the taxes imposed by sections 66-482 to 66-4,149 are paid to the department by the state, county, municipality, or other political subdivision. The state, county, municipality, or other political subdivision shall pay the tax and file a return concerning the tax to the department in like manner and form as is required under sections 66-489.02, 66-4,105, and 66-4,106.
(6) For purposes of this section:
(a) Owner means registered owner, titleholder, lessee entitled to possession of the motor vehicle, or anyone otherwise maintaining a possessory interest in the motor vehicle, but does not include anyone who, without participating in the use or operation of the motor vehicle and otherwise not engaged in the purpose for which the motor vehicle is being used, holds indicia of ownership primarily to protect his or her security interest in the motor vehicle or who acquired ownership of the motor vehicle pursuant to a foreclosure of a security interest in the motor vehicle; and
(b) Use means to operate, fuel, or otherwise employ.