"Interference" means the action or fact of interfering or intermeddling (with a person, et cetera, or in some action).
State v. Ferrin, 305 Neb. 762, 942 N.W.2d 404 (2020).
It is not necessary under this section for a defendant to engage in some sort of physical act. State v. Ferrin, 305
Neb. 762, 942 N.W.2d 404 (2020).
"Obstacle" means something that stands in the way or that obstructs progress (literal and figurative); a hindrance,
impediment, or obstruction. State v. Ferrin, 305 Neb. 762, 942 N.W.2d 404 (2020).
To show a violation of this section, the State must prove that (1) the defendant intentionally obstructed, impaired,
or hindered either a peace officer, a judge, or a police animal assisting a peace officer; (2) at the time the defendant
did so, the peace officer or judge was acting under color of his or her official authority to enforce the penal law or
preserve the peace; and (3) the defendant did so by using or threatening to use either violence, force, physical
interference, or obstacle. State v. Ferrin, 305 Neb. 762, 942 N.W.2d 404 (2020).
In prosecutions for assaulting a peace officer, obstructing a peace officer, or resisting arrest, a trial court must instruct the jury on the issue of self-defense when there is any evidence adduced which raises a legally cognizable claim that the peace officer used unreasonable force in making the arrest. State v. Yeutter, 252 Neb. 857, 566 N.W.2d 387 (1997).
The mere verbal refusal to provide information to an officer does not constitute an obstacle to the enforcement of the penal laws as contemplated by this section. State v. Yeutter, 252 Neb. 857, 566 N.W.2d 387 (1997).
"Preservation of the peace," as used in this statute, means maintaining the tranquillity enjoyed by members of a community where good order reigns. In re Interest of Richter, 226 Neb. 874, 415 N.W.2d 476 (1987).
The act of running away from an officer does obstruct, impair, or hinder the officer's efforts to preserve the peace. In re Interest of Richter, 226 Neb. 874, 415 N.W.2d 476 (1987).
Words "violence, force, physical interference, or obstacle" are of common usage and understandable by those of ordinary intelligence and, thus, not unconstitutionally vague. State v. Lynch, 223 Neb. 849, 394 N.W.2d 651 (1986).
The evidence was sufficient to convict the defendant under subsection (1) of this section where the defendant fled in his vehicle because he feared being arrested after he had been questioned by an officer, ordered to exit his vehicle, and approached by two officers and where the defendant disobeyed the officers' orders to get on the ground after the ensuing chase through a residential area. State v. Ellingson, 13 Neb. App. 931, 703 N.W.2d 273 (2005).
There must be some sort of affirmative physical act, or threat thereof, for a violation of this section to occur. State v. Owen, 7 Neb. App. 153, 580 N.W.2d 566 (1998).